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Три линейки толстовок, потому что все 4 – хорошо втройне. Толстовки – одни из самых универсальных 4 одежды: они отлично подходят как верхняя одежда и хорошо 4 тепло.
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Shestov was born Lev Isaakovich Schwarzmann in Kiev into a Jewish family. He obtained an education at various places, due to fractious clashes with authority.

He went on to study law and mathematics at the Moscow State University but after a clash with the Inspector of Students he was told to return to Kiev, where he completed his studies. Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández 1Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain Edward B.
Breitschwerdt 2Department of Clinical Sciences and the Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr, Raleigh, NC 27607 USA Laia Solano-Gallego 1Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain 1Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain 2Department of Clinical Sciences and the Comparative Medicine Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Dr, Raleigh, NC 27607 USA Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.
The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Bartonellosis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution that can infect humans and a large number of mammals including small companion animals cats and dogs.
In recent years, an increasing number of studies from around the world have reported Bartonella infections, although publications have predominantly focused on the North American perspective.
Currently, clinico-pathological data from Europe are more limited, suggesting that bartonellosis may be an infrequent or underdiagnosed infectious disease in cats and dogs.
Research is needed to confirm or exclude Bartonella infection as a cause of a spectrum of 4 and canine diseases.
On a comparative medical basis, different clinical manifestations, such as periods of intermittent fever, granulomatous inflammation involving the heart, liver, lymph nodes and other tissues, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, uveitis and vasoproliferative tumors have been reported in cats, dogs and humans.
The purpose of перейти review is to provide an update and European perspective on Bartonella infections in cats and dogs, including clinical, diagnostic, epidemiological, pathological, treatment and zoonotic aspects.
Background Bartonella is a genus of Alphaproteobacteria within the family Bartonellaceae.
In recent years, an increasing number of studies from around the world have reported canine and feline Bartonella infections.
The purpose of this review is to provide an update while emphasizing European literature relative to Bartonella spp.
Clinically relevant Bartonella species described in cats, dogs and humans At least thirteen Bartonella species or subspecies have been recognized as agents of human disease, three species are reportedly responsible for the majority of clinical illness: B.
Because serological testing for other Bartonella spp.
Primary reservoirs, accidental hosts and the confirmed or suspected vectors for the main Bartonella species infecting cats and dogs with zoonotic potential are listed in Table.
The most relevant species implicated in companion animal medicine are B.
Bartonella specie s that infect cats and dogs with zoonotic potential including primary reservoir, accidental host and vectors Bartonella species Primary reservoir Vector Accidental host B.
Ticks a, Pulex spp.
Domestic cats are also principal reservoir hosts for B.
Cats can also be infected with B.
The dog Canis familiaris may also be a host for B.
Wild canids such as coyotes Canis latrans in California and potentially domestic dogs have been described as main reservoir hosts for B.
Bartonella henselae, first isolated from a dog in Gabon in 2003 may be the Bartonella spp.
Dogs can also be infected with B.
Vector transmission occurs in two primary ways: i inoculation of Bartonella-contaminated arthropod feces via animal scratches or bites or by self-inflected contamination of wounds induced by the host scratching irritating arthropod bites.
Experimentally, using an in vitro model, Ixodes ricinus ticks were able to infect mammalian blood with B.
Furthermore, the presence of Bartonella spp.
Interestingly, regurgitation of B.
Epidemiology, prevalence and distribution in Europe Serology, PCR or culture-based clinico-epidemiological studies in cats and dogs in Europe are summarized in Tables and and Figs.
More than 50 feline and canine seroprevalence studies have been reported from different European countries Tables; however, culture or PCR confirmed cases of canine or feline bartonellosis have been infrequently reported.
Bacteremic prevalence rates for various combinations of B.
Generally, the differences in serological or bacteremic prevalences are related to different climatic conditions, whether the cat population tested consisted of pet or stray cats and whether acaricide products were used routinely.
Information regarding clinic-epidemiological studies performed in cats in other continents is summarized in Table.
Country area, year Total no.
Information provided based on clinico-epidemiological studies reported in Table.
Created with Geographical distribution на этой странице depicting Bartonella serological and molecular prevalences in dogs from European countries as well as documented case reports.
Information provided based on clinico-epidemiological studies reported in Table.
Created with Continent Area or country Bartonella spp.
Continent Area or country Bartonella spp.
In the USA, one study found a 3.
Another study found B.
A recent Bartonella seroepidemiology study from North America found overall low B.
In California, 102 out of 3417 2.
Of these, 36 35.
Although the sensitivity of Bartonella spp.
Bartonella seroprevalence data is more limited in Europe and other continents in dogs when compared to North America Tables .
In Europe, 3% were B.
Information regarding clinico-epidemiological studies performed in dogs in other continents is summarized in Table.
Comparative data have not been reported for European countries.
By IFA testing, B.
A recent study that used six Bartonella spp.
Interestingly, the lowest IFA seroreactivity was found against B.
In a previous study carried out in Spain using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA kit B.
These lower percentages most likely reflect differences in the antigens used, and exposure risks among the study populations.
Infection and pathogenesis In animal models, mainly cat and mouse, after initial inoculation the infection cycle of Bartonella spp.
Endothelial cells, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, dermis and the bone marrow are some of the proposed niches where Bartonella spp.
The tropism of Bartonella spp.
In mammalian reservoir hosts, Bartonella spp.
There is in vitro evidence that B.
For this reason, infection with one or more Bartonella spp.
In human patients, activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 and production of VEGF have been reported for B.
Moreover, in humans, Bartonella spp.
Clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities The spectrum of disease manifestations associated with Bartonella spp.
Although most acute Bartonella infections are probably self-limiting, persistent infections appear to be associated with a wide variety of clinical signs and pathological abnormalities in cats, dogs, and humans.
Bartonella infections manifest from subclinical bacteremia e.
Some factors that could influence the appearance of disease manifestations include virulence differences among Bartonella spp.
In the context of comparative medicine, One Health and pet ownership, B.
As reservoir host for B.
However, more virulent strains of these species, as well as other Bartonella spp.
Furthermore, immunosuppressive viral infections like feline leukemia virus FeLV may predispose to B.
In cats experimentally infected with B.
These indicators of chronic inflammation support the need for long-term studies to determine if cats or other animals suffer biological consequences for long-standing infection with one or more Bartonella spp.
Clinical sign, lesions and laboratory abnormalities reported in association with Bartonella infections in cats, dogs and humans Bartonella spp.
Hosts a Cats Dogs b Humans B.
Bartonella henselae DNA was also the predominant Bartonella spp.
https://aisebijou.ru/100/vektor-762-shtok-zatvornoy-rami-akm-vektor-762.html cases of B.
Current studies indicate Bartonella spp.
To date, few cases of canine bartonellosis have been reported from Europe Fig.
In another study seroreactivity to B.
Diagnosis and identification methods Accurate diagnosis of Bartonella infections remains challenging.
Currently there is no diagnostic technique for which a negative result assures the absence of infection.
In reservoir-adapted hosts such as rodents and cats and infrequently in accidental hosts sick dogs or humansBartonella spp.
Furthermore, the patient can be intermittently bacteremic as documented in feline B.
BAPGM, an optimized insect cell medium, has been used in an enrichment culture platform to enhance the growth of Bartonella spp.
The BAPGM platform combines enrichment culture of a clinical specimen in the liquid growth medium for a minimum of 7 days, followed by a highly sensitive PCR assay designed to amplify all known Bartonella spp.
When testing cat blood samples, B.
Although additional optimization of Bartonella spp.
The most employed tissue for Bartonella detection by PCR is peripheral blood.
However, PCR for Bartonella spp.
To avoid DNA denaturation by formalin fixation, it is advisable to store tissues for future testing https://aisebijou.ru/100/tarrago-krasitel-color-dye-steklo-109-dark-beige-25-ml.html submit fresh or fresh frozen specimens for PCR amplification продолжить чтение Bartonella DNA.
Seroconversion can be used to confirm acute Bartonella spp.
Alternatively, the inability to detect B.
It is important to note that only 50% of dogs infected with B.
Studies to date indicate that inflammatory lesions e.
Therefore, stains and techniques to better visualize bacteria in histological specimens are available such as Warthin-Starry staining or immunohistochemistry.
For this reason, other techniques like Bartonella immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization FISH and PCR can be used to confirm that the bacteria observed by Warthin-Starry staining of histopathological lesions are Bartonella spp.
Immunohistochemistry, including confocal immunohistochemistry, has been used for the detection of Bartonella spp.
An immunoassay using two specific in-house B.
Based по этому адресу the broad spectrum of historical and clinical abnormalities, bartonellosis is often among differential diagnostic considerations for various clinical problems.
However, in many clinical situations, bartonellosis is either not considered diagnostically or becomes a diagnosis after exclusion of other compatible disease entities.
However, it is important for clinicians to attempt to achieve diagnostic confirmation prior to embarking upon a long duration antibiotic therapy.
A positive therapeutic response to antibiotics, in conjunction with seroreactivity or positive culture or PCR results, provides indirect support for a definitive diagnosis of bartonellosis.
Interpretation of various diagnostic results to guide clinical decision making are summarized in Table.
Empirical treatment should not be routinely recommended - - - Bartonellosis not excluded; Repeat serology in 2—3 weeks or culture and PCR in a few days if the suspicion of clinical bartonellosis remains Do not treat or treat empirically if disease progresses.
Empirical treatment should not be routinely recommended aDespite diagnostic confirmation of bartonellosis in cats and dogs, as listed in the table, vector-borne disease co-infections, co-morbidities and other differential diagnoses should be evaluated in conjunction with or prior to administration of antimicrobial drugs Key: +, positive; - negative Treatment Antimicrobial therapy comprises the primary treatment modality and in most cases a combination of antibiotics is necessary to achieve disease resolution Table.
Data from controlled efficacy studies involving naturally-infected cats and dogs are lacking.
Treatments have varied depending upon the predominant tissue location of disease manifestations e.
Host Clinical Нажмите для деталей spp.
Treatment in sick cats is recommended when Bartonella spp.
Because widespread use of antibiotics contributes to antimicrobial resistance among non-targeted bacteria, antibiotic treatment is not routinely recommended for healthy, B.
However, antibiotic treatment of bacteremic healthy cats living in a household with immunocompromised adults or young children is recommended.
In these cases, treatment is aimed at decreasing bacterial load, minimizing the risk of additional vector exposure and thus decreasing the risk of transmission among pets or to humans.
An optimal protocol for treatment Bartonella spp.
Macrolides, like azithromycin, are effective but are not recommended as a first line antibiotic due to rapid development of resistance among B.
Once genetically-mediated mutation resistance developed, B.
Aminoglycosides, used to treat human endocarditis, are recommended in conjunction with careful monitoring of renal function during the initial treatment of suspected Bartonella endocarditis or myocarditis in cats and dogs.
The Jarisch-Herxheimer-like reaction is typically associated with lethargy, fever, occasionally vomiting and commonly occurs in cats and dogs at 4—7 days after starting antibiotics.
Furthermore, both people and pets should avoid contact with stray dogs and cats.
In the context of One Health, the authors support the future development of vaccines to protect pets against infection with B.
In households with immunosuppressed persons or young children, if their pets are determined as bacteremic, antibiotic treatment and routine acaricide use are recommended for these pets.
When acquiring a new cat or dog, into a household with immunocompromised individuals and children, choosing an adult animal will lower the possibility of acquiring a Bartonella spp.
Blood transfusion has also been identified as a risk factor for the transmission of Bartonella infections.
Conclusions Based upon the recent and ongoing discovery of novel Bartonella spp.
Furthermore, as Bartonella spp.
The limited number of reported cases of Bartonella spp.
In conclusion, more efforts Лоток кабельный лестничный DKC LL1030ZL 100 х 300 х 3000 мм needed in both research and clinical settings to characterize the medical importance of Bartonella spp.
Additionally, randomized case control studies are needed to assess treatment efficacy and to establish an optimal protocol for the treatment of chronic bartonellosis in cats, dogs and читать далее />Efforts to develop safe and effective vaccines are needed to protect pets and their families.
Open access publication of the paper has been sponsored by Bayer Animal Health Germany in the framework of a sponsored research project.
Funding Open access publication of the paper has been sponsored by Bayer Animal Health Germany in the framework of a sponsored research project.
AAF wrote, and EB and LSG edited the first draft.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests LSG and AAF declare that they have no competing interests.
In conjunction with Dr Sushama Sontakke and North Carolina State University, EBB holds U.
He is a co-founder, shareholder and Chief Scientific Officer for Galaxy Diagnostics, a company that provides advanced diagnostic testing for the detection of Bartonella species infections.
Contributor Information Alejandra Álvarez-Fernández, Email:.
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Death of military working dogs due to Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii genotype III endocarditis and myocarditis.
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Prostatitis, steatitis, and diarrhea in a dog following presumptive flea-borne transmission of Bartonella henselae.
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Endocarditis in a dog due to infection with a novel Bartonella subspecies.
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Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunosuppressed dog.
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A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii ssp.
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Detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA in hepatic specimens from two продолжить чтение with hepatic disease.
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Concurrent Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with panniculitis and owner with ulcerated nodular skin lesions.
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Bartonella-associated inflammatory cardiomyopathy in a dog.
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Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome in 2 dogs with bartonellosis.
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Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites Ornithonyssus bacoti Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
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Gammopathy in a Spanish dog infected with Bartonella henselae.
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Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in two dogs with pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis.
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Experimental афигенно!!!!)) Плеер Jagga 999FM 1Gb кажется of dogs with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp.
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Clinical and pathologic evaluation of chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats.
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Infection of human CD34+ progenitor cells with Bartonella henselae results in intraerythrocytic presence of B.
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Evidence of a leading role for VEGF in Bartonella henselae-induced endothelial cell proliferations.
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Live Bartonella henselae enhances endothelial cell proliferation without direct contact.
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Infection of fetal feline brain cells in culture with Bartonella henselae.
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Bartonella henselae in canine cavitary effusions: prevalence, identification, and clinical associations.
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Identification of Bartonella henselae in 2 cats with pyogranulomatous myocarditis and diaphragmatic myositis.
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Clinical and diagnostic aspects of feline cutaneous leishmaniosis in Venezuela.
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